The Voynich Botanical PlantsFolio 31r
Folio 31r, Fleabane (Erigeron acris), has a cosmopolitain distribution with the highest diversity of species in North America. It is closely related to the plant in Folio 27v, both being members of the aster family. It has an erect stem, alternate leaves shaped like a narrow spoon, and white ray flowers with yellow discs. It has a taproot so the plant spreads by re-seeding and often forms loose colonies. The leaves were used as a cooked or raw vegetable. People in the middle ages believed that the dried plant could repel fleas.