The Voynich Botanical PlantsFolio 9r
Folio 9r, Casteroil (Ricinus communis), is a suckering, perennial shrub native to the Eastern and Southeastern Africa. About 6,000 years ago the plant spread from Egypt to the Mediterranean, the Middle East, and India. The leaves of casteroil are attached by the center of the leaf blade to reddish purple stems (vet.purdue.edu). It has very toxic seeds which are used to produce a nonedible oil. Casteroil seeds have been found in Egyptian tombs and the Greeks used the oil from casteroil seeds to anoint their bodies. Castoroil is used as a purgative.